This post is not a tutorial, but a tip/hints/info consolidation post for anyone interested in migrating or deploying a new hypervisor

Why not XCP-ng from the beginning?


NUC deployment was near to 3 years ago, being a Linux noob then (totally admitting this 😜), I wouldn’t think of touching a hypervisor. Next was because Plex Media Server didn’t support Linux GPU hardware transcoding then

Fast forward 2 years, with more experience in Linux in general, its time to migrate away from Windows

Also getting frustrated with Windows 10 in general:

  • Years later, still can’t automount Network Drives after a reboot (Malaysia house suffers from electrical blackouts)
    • Say bye-bye to your Plex Library items if you’ve enabled Auto Empty Trash in the Settings, and (un)lucky enough like me, the blackout somehow overlaps with your Empty Trash schedule. It happened to me once, but it was a small Library then…
  • Third VM onwards deployed via VirtualBox seem to freeze out after a random amount of time
  • I don’t even want to bother typing out other problems

Windows is just a bag of problems

Tips & Info for XCP-ng/Xenserver

Install XCP-ng on the NUC

Install XCP-ng on the NUC

Getting Ready

XCP-ng v8.1.0

Hardware/Software Required

XCP-ng Installation stuck for console serial port

  1. Keyboard
    • USB or Bluetooth/Peripheral Wireless, personally I will stick to wired USB just in case the Bluetooth/Peripheral Wireless Dongle provided is not supported on CentOS
  2. USB Stick x1
    • At least 16GB, try not to get overly large 64GB sticks
    • If you have some VMware background, we are not running the Hypervisor OS on these sticks
    • Stick is used one-time to install XCP-ng
  3. Any standard Monitor display x1
  4. NFS/CIFS(SMB) Network Share
  5. (Optional) Windows
    • More on this later

Get a USB keyboard and Monitor to work with the installation

This NUC is my 3rd or 4th deployment of XCP-ng, but the first deployment was hair plucking and I thought my hardware wasn’t supported, as it just showed the screen below, without any changes and you’re stuck there

Turns out this is true for users trying to install via console serial ports, thinking that they could skip the keyboard and/or monitor =x

This has not been tested with latest version of XCP-ng. If it worked for you, leave a comment!

Prepare ISOs and NFS/CIFS

Download all the relevant ISOs that you plan to deploy, obviously including XCP-ng installation ISO. I won’t write into detail here as it should come as something very simple if you plan to deploy VMs…

You will need an NFS/CIFS share with the ISOs, for XCP-ng to read from network, create an ISO Library share within XCP-ng, and start deploying the VMs

Enough with the obvious… let’s dwell deeper and actually provide some useful information 😅

Plan your VMs’ storage allocation

Taking my recent NUC migration, I over deployed my Plex VM Virtual Disk, rendering me unable to perform Delta Backups for my Plex VM

If you plan to deploy VMs, please cook up an Excel sheet and calculate how much storage space or memory you are allowed to work with before you share my almost-unrecoverable mistake/experience

This is important if you plan to backup your VMs on a schedule

Backups on Xenserver work with Snapshots

SR (Storage Repository) is your local/real/OS harddisk

Snapshots are saved on the same SR that your VM is deployed on

Example for beginners new to the terminology:

XCP-ng Host has a 256GB SSD – This is your first Default SR, let’s call this SR1
XCP-ng Host also has a 1TB HDD – This is your second SR, SR2

You deployed a 30GB VM VDI (Virtual Disk) on SR1. When you perform snapshots or Delta Backups, your Snapshot can only be saved on SR1 (SSD). You can’t save the Snapshot on SR2 (HDD)

The only way to save on SR2, is to deploy/migrate your VM onto SR2

XCP-ng SR In a glance

XCP-ng SR In a glance

As a general rule of thumb for deployment, just make sure you prepare twice the amount of Virtual Disk storage for any single VM that you wish to deploy (Green box of screenshot)


VM#1 – 30GB VDI (Virtual Disk) + 30GB Snapshot = 60GB (30GB usable)

Taking into detail, the Snapshot will be the current used space/changed files in your VDI, so if you’ve used up 15GB of your 30GB, your Snapshot will have a size of 15GB. This is a very layman example, so don’t take this as the definite answer for Snapshot size

XCP-ng Plex Mistake

XCP-ng Plex Mistake

The NUC has a 256GB SSD, which becomes 182GB usable because of partition formatting, and usage by your XCP-ng Host

For my Plex VM boo-boo, I deployed a 100GB VDI planning for future Plex Library expansion, totally forgetting about the Snapshot disk space usage, and now I can’t backup/snapshot my Plex because I do not have enough SR space left (Red box of screenshot)


Because of COVID, getting a new bigger SSD seems like it’s going to take some time before I could replace the current 256GB SSD. I have had a bad experience with M2 slot on the NUC, the initial M2 that came with the purchase died out on me within a year. Apparently its a heat issue, heatsinks are sold for these M2s, and I live in Malaysia, so it’s summer forever

NUC’s limited to one SATA and one M.2 if you are wondering why I contemplated and wrote the above

Solution #1 – Add a new physical SR

Expand current NUC harddisk options with M2, and just migrate the current Plex VM over to the bigger harddisk/SR2. Making and clearing enough space for my remaining VMs on SR1 to snapshot successfully (and some VMs still pending deployment!)

Pros – Only hardware addition downtime

Solution #2 – Replace SSD

Replace the current SSD with a bigger sized SSD

To prepare for this, from XCP-ng, I would need to backup all VMs entirely by exporting them as .xva, and then importing them back into XCP-ng after a fresh install

Why not clone the current SSD to the new SSD? Google around and it seems it’s too much hassle and errors/corruption do happen. So the old export-import method seems to work for my small 256GB deployment

Cons – The downside to this option is that you will experience a longer downtime since you will need to shutdown the VMs, export, and import

Solution #3 – Start from scratch for the Plex VM with a smaller VDI

Another solution is to backup the Plex files, and start from scratch for the Plex VM with a smaller VDI

For solution #2 and #3, the Plex VM is definitely going to be re-created

Deploying Xen Orchestra

Why you might need Windows for XCP-ng Center

Most administration happens on Xen Orchestra (at least for me)

Here’s the tricky part when you fresh-installed XCP-ng, you will need to use either the XCP-ng Center (only on Windows) or Xen Orchestra to deploy VMs

I have a Windows Desktop (for gaming) so I could easily use XCP-ng Center to login, deploy an Ubuntu18 VM used to build the Open Source version of Xen Orchestra (which gives you the Delta Backup and other features for free)

To build the Open Source Xen Orchestra, I just use this script which is as close as it gets to a one-click install (or one line copy/paste)

Steps – if you have Windows

  1. Use XCP-ng Center to login
  2. Create your ISO Library if you have not
  3. Select the proper template for your choice of distribution of either Ubuntu16/18 or Debian (Server) VM
    • with minimum 3GB of RAM – required by the script
    • VDI (Virtual Disk) can be of the default as it does not take up too much space
  4. Run through the Installation by going to the Console
    • (optional but helpful) Enable SSH Server during OS installation so that you can SSH in with your favourite Terminal/Putty and copy/paste commands
  5. Once you are up and running with your OS, follow the instructions on Jarli01’s page, give it some time to build and once it’s done, you can login with the default credentials
  6. Login to Xen Orchestra, change your default admin credentials, if not, create a new user with admin privileges, and delete the existing [email protected]
  7. Proceed to configure your connection to the XCP-ng host, remember to check “Unauthorized Certificates”, click on “Enable” under Status and you are good to go
XCP-ng XO Server Connect

XCP-ng XO Server Connect

Steps – If you do not have Windows

As this post is not a full tutorial, this method has not been tested. But I could imagine it should take you one more duplicate step/VM. You would deploy their One-Click install of XO by heading over to your XCP-ng Host’s webpage, enter your XCP-ng host IP into your browser’s URL and it will show you the “Welcome” page. Click on “Quick Deploy”

XCP-ng XO Quick Deploy

XCP-ng XO Quick Deploy

If you would like to continue building the Open Source version above because you would like to use the Delta Backup feature, you would use the Trial XO to deploy a VM used to build the Open Source version

In the end, you will have two XO VMs, x1 running the Trial version and x1 running the Open Source version

The steps are similar to the one above “Steps – if you have Windows”, so I won’t list the steps again. The only change is that you login to Trial Xen Orchestra, from there deploy a new VM, which has the same steps, just a different GUI

Intel Quick Sync Video (iGPU) Passthrough works

Google seems to return very little results on iGPU compatibility, though there’s an abundance for general GPU cards. I was sceptical on getting iGPU to work, which didn’t really matter to me as I Direct Play most of my videos from Plex anyway

I can confirm that Intel Quick Sync Video (iGPU) works, and can be passthrough-ed from XCP-ng hypervisor to your Plex VM or any other VM

Getting your Intel Quick Sync passthrough-ed to your VM was simple

As XCP-ng host install itself, it will bind itself to the Intel Quick Sync hardware device, which enables you to see the Setup screen/Console

To be able to passthrough the iGPU to our Plex VM, we have to detach the iGPU from the host and attach it to the Plex VM, which means you will not be able to see the XCP-ng console

XCP-ng Selecting the iGPU to passthrough to VM

XCP-ng Selecting the iGPU to passthrough to VM

As I was using the XCP-ng Center software, it was a matter of just detaching the GPU from the host, restart your XCP-ng host, and then attaching it to the Plex VM

For non-XCP-ng Center or Terminal users, here’s the link to attach devices to VMs via the console of your XCP-ng Host

A quick check on Plex VM itself after attaching the iGPU

sudo lspci

Shows the iGPU listed 🎉

sudo lspci

sudo lspci

And of course, a real run on the HW transcoding…

Plex iGPU Passthrough Hardware Transcode

Plex iGPU Passthrough Hardware Transcode

This is not a review so I won’t be benchmarking how many streams it can max out in comparison with a Windows machine. If you need to transcode to many users, just get a proper Desktop build with a capable graphics card

Protectli Vault FW6C i5-7200U – Quick review

If you are looking for a small footprint, All-in-One, enough to handle 1Gbps (probably 400~500Mbps on 2 interfaces with Snort/Suricata IDS services) WAN/LAN router, with enough room for VM deployment (think pi-hole or UniFi Controller, depending on your use case and memory usage per VM), you can consider a Protectli Vault 6-Port FW6C (i5-7200U)

(This section/post is not sponsored in anyway by Protectli)

Be sure to upgrade the BIOs firmware  before trying to install XCP-ng on it. You can read their guide provided by the Protectli team @ , it is outdated now as you can download XCP-ng’s version of XCP-Center (XCP-ng Center)


  • Only the FW6 series supports XCP-ng

Tested Scenario and VMs

  1. pfSense Firewall/Router
  2. pi-hole
  3. Ubuntu16 Server
  4. Ubuntu16 Desktop
  5. Plex Media Server
    • Yes. I ran it. Being a Plex Subscriber enables me to Direct Play videos on my iOS device, so it didn’t matter to me whether the CPU was fast enough to transcode. And if you are wondering…
    • No, the Protectli FW6C will definitely lag behind during transcoding, which affects your whole system, in turn affecting your Internet bandwidth (pfSense Router). Try not to cheap out and squeeze every bit of performance out of this or any other little beasts. It will naturally fail


  • Heatsink Casing
    • No need to replace fans
  • Silent
  • Small footprint with more than enough performance as a consumer/SMB router
  • Low CPU TDP⚡️ – 15W
  • AES-NI Capable (pfSense)


  • If you plan to deploy more than three VMs on this little beast, it’s better to go for a NUC, the next step up which is upgradable
    • NUC is limited to x1 LAN interface
  • Can get hot to the touch
    • Who touches their routers anyway?! 🤣 Jokes aside, just be careful if you are moving it after running it for 24hrs 😊

If all you need is to run a pf/opnSense router with pi-hole, and a server with some low load (Unifi Controller) Docker containers. The FW6C is a great choice. If you find the price a little high, you can source for the OEMs over at Alibaba

Room for improvement

The Protectli FW6C since have been migrated over to a pure pfSense Router in an SMB environment

XCP-ng on Consumer HTPC build

XCP-ng on Consumer HTPC build

If you plan to deploy/test more VMs, always purchase something with room for improvement. The FW6C has been replaced with a full consumer Desktop HTPC case with even higher specs, 32GB RAM, running a total of 10 VMs, with performance room to spare (would need a bigger SSD… again 😭!)